# R Programming Language (Analysis Software for Statistics & Data Science)

R is a **programming language and software** that is becoming increasingly popular in the disciplines of statistics and data science.

R is a dialect of the S programming language and was developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in the year 1995. A stable beta version was released in the year 2000.

The R software is **completely free** and gets **developed collaboratively** by its community (open source software) – every R user can publish new add-on packages.

The open source ideology of R programming reflects a huge contrast compared to most traditional programming environments (e.g. SAS, SPSS, Stata etc.), where the software development is in the hands of a paid development team.

## All R Programming Tutorials on Statistics Globe

In the following, you can find a **list of R tutorials** on statisticsglobe.com. In the tutorials, I’m explaining statistical concepts and provide reproducible example codes in R.

## The Increasing Popularity of R Programming

Since the R programming language provides features for almost all statistical tasks without any costs for the user, R is rapidly growing since its release. Let’s check some numbers…

**Graphic 1: Google Scholar Search Results for R Programming Filtered by Year**

## Reasons to Learn R

**The pros:**

+ R is free

+ R’s popularity is growing – More and more people will use it

+ Almost all statistical methods are available in R

+ New methods are implemented in add-on packages quickly

+ Algorithms for packages and functions are publicly available (transparency and reproducibility)

+ R provides a huge variety of graphical outputs

+ R is very flexible – Essentially everything can be modified for your personal needs

+ R is compatible with all operating systems (e.g. Windows, MAC, or Linux)

+ R has a huge community that is organized in forums to help each other (e.g. stackoverflow)

+ R is fun 🙂

**The cons:**

– Relatively high learning burden at the beginning (even though it’s worth it)

– No systematic validation of new packages and functions

– No company in the background that takes responsibility for errors in the code (this is especially important for public institutes)

– R is almost exclusively based on programming (no extensive drop-down menus such as in SPSS)

– R can have problems with computationally intensive tasks (only important for advanced users)

You are not sure yet, whether you should learn the R programming language? In that case, I can recommend the following video of the YouTube channel RenegadeThinking. The speaker provides you with many reasons, why it is advisable to learn R.

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## Appendix

**Appendix 1: R code for the creation of Graphic 1**

year <- 2018:2000 # Years r_gs <- c(21600 * 2, 43300, 43100, 38100, 33200, 29800, # Google Scholar searches 28500, 25500, 22400, 19100, 15900, 12000, 8270, 5930, 3740, 2600, 1980, 1600, 1360) data <- data.frame(software = rep("R", 19), # Combine data year = year, searches = r_gs) ggplot(data) + # Create plot geom_point(aes(x = year, y = searches, color = software, shape = software)) + geom_line(aes(x = year, y = searches, color = software)) + theme(legend.title = element_blank(), legend.position = "none") + ggtitle("Google Scholar Search Results") + labs(x = "Year", y = "Search Results") + scale_y_continuous(labels = comma) |

**Appendix 2: How to create the header graphic of this page**

par(mar = c(0, 0, 0, 0)) # Remove space around plot par(bg = "#1b98e0") # Set background color set.seed(10293847) # Seed N <- 100000 # Sample size x <- rnorm(N) # X variable y <- rnorm(N) + x # Correlated Y variable plot(x, y, col = "#353436", pch = 19, cex = 0.1 # Create plot , xlim = c(- 4, 4), ylim = c(- 7, 7)) text(0, 0, "R", col = "#1b98e0", cex = 12) # Write R points(0, 0, col = "#1b98e0", cex = 30, lwd = 5) # Create circles points(0, 0, col = "#1b98e0", cex = 50, lwd = 5) points(0, 0, col = "#1b98e0", cex = 70, lwd = 5) points(0, 0, col = "#1b98e0", cex = 90, lwd = 5) points(0, 0, col = "#1b98e0", cex = 110, lwd = 5) box(col="#1b98e0") # Color of box |