# R Warning Message: NAs Introduced by Coercion (Example)

This article explains how to debug the warning message “NAs introduced by coercion” in the R programming language.

The content of the post is structured as follows:

Let’s dive into it…

## Creation of Example Data

First, I’ll have to create some example data.

```vec <- c("50", "200", "1,000", "10", "1200", "2,100") # Create example vector vec # Print example vector #  "50" "200" "1,000" "10" "1200" "2,100"```

Have a look at the previous RStudio console output. It shows that our example data is a vector of character strings containing six vector elements.

## Example 1: Reproduce the Warning Message: NAs Introduced by Coercion

In this example, I’ll show how to replicate the warning message “NAs introduced by coercion” when using the as.numeric function in R. Let’s apply the as.numeric function to our example vector:

```as.numeric(vec) # Applying as.numeric function #  50 200 NA 10 1200 NA # Warning message: # NAs introduced by coercion```

As you can see, the warning message “NAs introduced by coercion” is returned and some output values are NA (i.e. missing data or not available data).

The reason for this is that some of the character strings are not properly formatted numbers and hence cannot be converted to the numeric class.

The next example shows how to solve this problem in R.

## Example 2: Modify Data to Avoid Warning Message Using gsub() Function

In Example 2, I’ll illustrate how to handle the as.numeric() warning message “NAs introduced by coercion”.

As explained before, some of our input values are not formatted properly, because they contain commas (i.e. ,) between the numbers. We can remove these commas by using the gsub function:

```vec_new <- gsub(",", "", vec) # Applying gsub function vec_new # Print updated example vector #  "50" "200" "1000" "10" "1200" "2100"```

Have a look at the previous output of the RStudio console. It shows that our updated vector does not contain commas anymore.

Now, let’s apply the as numeric function again:

```as.numeric(vec_new) # Applying as.numeric function #  50 200 1000 10 1200 2100```

As you can see, we did not only avoid the warning message, we also created an output vector without any NA values.

## Example 3: Suppress Warning Message Using suppressWarnings() Function

Sometimes you might not want to convert non-number values to numeric. In this case, you can simply ignore the warning message “NAs introduced by coercion” by wrapping the suppressWarnings function around the as.numeric function:

```suppressWarnings(as.numeric(vec)) # Applying suppressWarnings function #  50 200 NA 10 1200 NA```

The output is the same as in Example 1, but this time without printing the warning message to the RStudio console.

## Video, Further Resources & Summary

Do you want to know more about warnings and errors in R? Then I can recommend watching the following video of my YouTube channel. In the video, I’m explaining the R programming codes of this tutorial in a live programming session.

In addition, you might have a look at the related articles of my homepage. You can find some tutorials about warning and error messages below.

Summary: In this post, I explained how to get rid of the warning “NAs introduced by coercion” when converting a character or factor variable to numeric in the R programming language.

In case you have further questions, don’t hesitate to let me know in the comments section. Furthermore, please subscribe to my email newsletter in order to get updates on new tutorials.

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• Ali H
April 15, 2021 7:30 pm

I am having the error NAs introduced by coercion. In my case however I am trying to reformat the string characters (e.g. green, blue, red) from two specific columns so that the characters (e.g. green) is represented by a numeric number (e.g. 1) I’ve been trying a long while now so that I can use the data as part of a neural network but cannot get past this error. Can you help me with this?

• Hi Ali,

Thank you for the very kind words and your interesting question. A simple solution might be the following:

```x <- c("green", "red", "green", "blue", "blue", "yellow") x_num <- as.numeric(as.factor(x_fac)) x_num  2 3 2 1 1 4```

Note that the numeric output would be based on the alphabetic order of the input vector.

I hope that helps!

Joachim

• Angi
June 24, 2021 9:21 pm

Hi Joachim,
Your blog has been a godsend! and I’m hoping you can solve this: My character vector (“1”, “2”, “3”) has zero-width non printing spaces (‘\u200b’)in it (I rvested some Covid data online). I managed to remove most of them with str_remove and then convert the characters into numbers. But it still spits out this message “NAs introduced by coercion” and I don’t know what to look for! Would appreciate any guidance. Thank you!

• Hey Angi,

Thanks a lot for this amazing feedback! 🙂

You could use the following code to identify all data cells that are converted to NA:

```x <- c("1", "2", "a", "3", "b") x_test <- as.numeric(x) x[is.na(x_test)] #  "a" "b"```

I hope that helps!

Joachim

• Angi
June 26, 2021 7:47 pm

Thanks Joachim. The problem was figuring 1) the “invisible” mystery character that was creating the issue. Since I tend to glimpse() at my data rather than head() it, I couldn’t see anything wrong. Till I used head(). 2) The culprit was a zero-width non-printing space that was seemingly immune to str_remove() in its original form “”. But 48 hours later, a good learning experience.