plotly Bubble Chart in R (3 Examples)
First, though, here is a quick overview of this tutorial:
Let’s dive into the R code!
Install & Load plotly & dplyr
If you do not have the plotly and dplyr libraries already installed in your R programming environment, then run the lines of code below in either R Studio or in any other code editor that can run R to install and load both plotly and dplyr; otherwise, you can skip to the next section.
# install plotly and dplyr install.packages(c("plotly", "dplyr")) # load plotly and dplyr library(plotly) library(dplyr)
The R dplyr library is the foremost library for data manipulation and analysis in R programming, and it enables us to run several lines of code together as a chunk using the pipe operator.
In this tutorial, we will use the gapminder dataset to build a bubble plot. In R Studio, you can import the gapminder dataset after loading the library by running
library(gapminder). Then you can call the dataset by its name. Alternatively, you can download the dataset from online dataset repositories.
Once the data is imported, we will filter the data by year and get the data for the year 2002.
data_2002 <- gapminder |> filter(year == 2002)
Then we can preview the first 10 rows of the data as follows.
data_2002 |> head(10) # country continent year lifeExp pop gdpPercap #1 Afghanistan Asia 2002 42.1 25268405 727. #2 Albania Europe 2002 75.7 3508512 4604. #3 Algeria Africa 2002 71.0 31287142 5288. #4 Angola Africa 2002 41.0 10866106 2773. #5 Argentina Americas 2002 74.3 38331121 8798. #6 Australia Oceania 2002 80.4 19546792 30688. #7 Austria Europe 2002 79.0 8148312 32418. #8 Bahrain Asia 2002 74.8 656397 23404. #9 Bangladesh Asia 2002 62.0 135656790 1136. #10 Belgium Europe 2002 78.3 10311970 30486.
As seen, the dataset shows some life standard measurements and the population per country.
Example 1: Simple Bubble Plot
In this first example, we will build a simple bubble plot. However, we will plot the first 50 rows of the dataset; hence the plot doesn’t get too congested.
fig <- data_2002 |> head(50) |> plot_ly(x = ~lifeExp, y = ~gdpPercap, text = ~continent, type = "scatter", mode = "markers", marker = list(size = 60,opacity = 0.7)) |> layout(title = "Life Expectancy Vs GDP", xaxis = list(showgrid = FALSE), yaxis = list(showgrid = FALSE)) fig
plot_ly() function, we specified that we wanted the hover text to be the names of the continents, by defining the argument
text = ~continent. We also set the bubble size to 60 and opacity to 0.7.
Example 2: Mapping Colors by Categorical Variable
In this second example, we will color the bubbles by the continents.
fig <- data_2002 |> head(50) |> plot_ly(x = ~lifeExp, y = ~gdpPercap, text = ~continent, type = "scatter", color = ~continent, mode = "markers", marker = list(size = 60,opacity = 0.7)) |> layout(title = "Life Expectancy Vs GDP", xaxis = list(showgrid = FALSE), yaxis = list(showgrid = FALSE)) fig
We colored the bubbles by parsing
~continent to the
color = argument. Now, you can select continents to visualize by toggling the legend keys.
Example 3: Mapping Colors by Continuous Variable
In this third and final example, we will color the bubbles by the population variable.
fig <- data_2002 |> head(50) |> plot_ly(x = ~lifeExp, y = ~gdpPercap, text = ~continent, color = ~pop, colors = "Set3", type = "scatter", mode = "markers", marker = list(size = 60,opacity = 0.3)) |> layout(title = "Life Expectancy Vs GDP", xaxis = list(showgrid = FALSE), yaxis = list(showgrid = FALSE)) fig
In the code above, we colored the bubbles by parsing
~pop to the
color = argument, and also gave the
"Set3" color scale to the
colors = argument, which created the bubble plot’s color gradient.
So, that is how to make a plotly bubble plot in the R programming language. You can build bubble plots of other kinds of datasets as well.
I hope you found this tutorial helpful!
Video, Further Resources & Summary
Do you need more explanations on how to make plotly bubble plots in R? Then you should have a look at the following YouTube video of the Statistics Globe YouTube channel.
In the video, we explain in some more detail how to make plotly bubble plots in R.
The YouTube video will be added soon.
I hope this tutorial has helped you learn how to make plotly bubble plots in R. If you would like to learn more about using plotly in the R programming language, then be sure to check out other interesting plotly in R tutorials on Statistics Globe:
- Create Dropdown Menu in plotly Graph in R (Example)
- How to Draw a plotly Area Chart in R (3 Examples)
- Change Size of plotly Graph in R (Example)
- Custom Button in plotly Graph in R (Example)
- Layout & Style of plotly Graph in R (Example)
- Learn R Programming
This post has shown how to make plotly bubble plot in R. In case you have further questions, you may leave a comment below.
This page was created in collaboration with Ifeanyi Idiaye. You might check out Ifeanyi’s personal author page to read more about his academic background and the other articles he has written for the Statistics Globe website.
Statistics Globe Newsletter