# log Function in R (5 Examples) | Natural, Binary & Common Logarithm

This post shows how to compute logarithms using the log function in the R programming language.

Youâ€™re here for the answer, so letâ€™s get straight to the examplesâ€¦

## Definition & Basic R Syntax of log Function

Definition: The log R function computes logarithms of numeric values.

Basic R Syntax: You can find the basic R programming syntax of the log function below.

`log(x)                       # Basic R syntax of log function`

In the following, Iâ€™ll show five examples for the application of the log function in the R programming language. So keep on readingâ€¦

## Example 1: Apply log Function to Numeric Value

This Example explains how to apply the log function to a single numeric value. For this, we simply have to insert the value, for which we want to calculate the logarithm, into the log() function:

```log(3)                       # Applying log function
# 1.098612```

The RStudio console returns the result: The logarithm of 3 is 1.098612

## Example 2: Apply log Function with User-Defined Base

Example 1 explained how to compute the natural logarithm (default specification of the log function). In Example 2, Iâ€™ll show how to change the base of the log command. For this task, we need to specify the base argument of the log function as shown below:

```log(3, base = 5)             # Base of 5
# 0.6826062```

You can see the logarithm of 3 with a base of 5 in the output above.

## Example 3: The log2 Function

The R programming language provides some wrapper functions for common types of logarithms. In this Example, Iâ€™ll explain how to use the log2 function to calculate a logarithm with a base of 2 (i.e. binary logarithm). First, consider the R programming syntax we have already used in the previous example:

```log(3, base = 2)             # Base of 2
# 1.584963```

As you can see, the logarithm of 3 with a base of 2 is 1.584963.

However, we can also use the log2 function to obtain the same result with a more efficient R syntax:

```log2(3)                      # Applying log2 function
# 1.584963```

## Example 4: The log10 Function

In this Example, Iâ€™ll show how to compute the common logarithm (i.e. a base of 10) using the log10 function. First, letâ€™s compute the common logarithm with the conventional R syntax:

```log(3, base = 10)            # Base of 10
# 0.4771213```

Similar to the previous example, the R programming language provides a wrapper function for the common logarithm:

```log10(3)                     # Applying log10 function
# 0.4771213```

## Example 5: Apply log Function to Vector

This Example illustrates how to apply the log function to a vector object. First, letâ€™s create an example vector in R:

```my_vec <- 1:10               # Create example vector
my_vec                       # Print vector to RStudio console
# 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10```

Our example vector contains ten numeric values ranging from 1 to 10.

Now, we can apply the log function to this vector as shown below:

```log(my_vec)                  # Apply log function to vector
# 0.0000000 0.6931472 1.0986123 1.3862944 1.6094379 1.7917595 1.9459101 2.0794415 2.1972246 2.3025851```

We could also change to base of the log function when itâ€™s applied to a vector:

```log(my_vec, base = 5)        # Base of 5
# 0.0000000 0.4306766 0.6826062 0.8613531 1.0000000 1.1132828 1.2090620 1.2920297 1.3652124 1.4306766```

## Video, Further Resources & Summary

If you need more explanations on the R syntax of this page, I can recommend to watch the following video of my YouTube channel. In the video, I show the R code of this article.

Furthermore, you may want to read some of the related articles of my website. I have released several related tutorials already:

At this point you should know how to apply the log function in the R programming language. Tell me about it in the comments below, in case you have additional comments and/or questions.

Subscribe to the Statistics Globe Newsletter