# Force R to Show Scientific Notation (2 Examples)

In this tutorial youâ€™ll learn how to show numbers in scientific notation (e.g. 12e-7) in R programming.

The page will contain these topics:

Letâ€™s get started.

## Creating Example Data

Before all else, letâ€™s construct some example data:

```x <- c(31.111, 3.1111, 0.03, 0.031111)    # Create example vector
x                                         # Print example vector
# [1] 31.111000  3.111100  0.030000  0.031111```

The previous output of the RStudio console shows that our example data is a numeric vector containing four different values with different size.

As you can see, by default the R programming language shows these numbers without scientific notation.

## Example 1: Show Number in Scientific Notation Using formatC() Function

This example explains how to use the formatC function to convert our numbers to a scientific notation character string.

Have a look at the following R code and its output:

```formatC(x, format = "e")                  # Show in scientific notation
# [1] "3.1111e+01" "3.1111e+00" "3.0000e-02" "3.1111e-02"```

As you can see, our numbers are shown in scientific notation. Note that these numbers have the character class instead of the numeric class.

## Example 2: Show Number in Scientific Notation with Only Two Digits

In Example 2, Iâ€™ll explain how to manipulate the number of digits that are shown when displaying number in scientific notation.

For this, we can use the digits argument provided by the formatC function:

```formatC(x, format = "e", digits = 2)      # Scientific notation with two digits
# [1] "3.11e+01" "3.11e+00" "3.00e-02" "3.11e-02"```

As you can see, the number of digits was reduced to two.

## Video & Further Resources

Have a look at the following video of my YouTube channel. I explain the R programming codes of this tutorial in the video.

Furthermore, you may have a look at some of the related tutorials of Statistics Globe.

This page has shown how to display numeric values in scientific notation in the R programming language. Tell me about it in the comments section below, if you have additional questions.

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• AWESOME Joachim. Thank you I modified your code to use inline_hook which I learned from Pat Schloss’ Riffomonas Project

library(knitr)
inline_hook <- function(x){
# paste0("**", x, "**")
if(is.numeric(x)){
formatted <- formatC(x, format="e", digits=2)
} else{
formatted <- x
}
}

knit_hooks\$set(inline=inline_hook)