# Append Value to Vector in R (4 Examples)

In this tutorial you’ll learn how to append a new value to a vector in the R programming language.

The table of content is structured as follows:

Let’s get started:

## Creating Example Data

In this R tutorial, I’ll use the following example vector in R:

```x <- rep("a", 5) # Create example vector x # "a" "a" "a" "a" "a"```

As you can see based on the output of the RStudio console, our example vector is a character vector and contains five times the value “a”.

## Example 1: Append Value to Vector with c() Function

The first example show the most common way for the appendage of new elements to a vector in R: The c() function. The c stands for concatenate and the function is used to combine multiple elements into a single data object.

Have a look at the following R syntax:

```x1 <- c(x, "b") # c() function x1 "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "b"```

The previous R code concatenated the new value “b” to our example vector and stored the new vector in the data object x1.

## Example 2: Append Value to Vector with append() Function

An alternative to the c function shown in Example 1 is the append function. The append function can be applied as follows:

```x2 <- append(x, "b") # append() function x2 "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "b"```

The output is the same as in Example 1.

## Example 3: Append Value to Vector After Last Position

The next alternative is often used within for-loops or while-loops, since it relies on the index of the new element.

With the following R code, we can append a new element after the last index position of our vector:

```x3 <- x # Replicate input vector x3[length(x3) + 1] <- "b" # Add value at last position x3 "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "b"```

Again, the output is the same.

## Example 4: Append Value to Empty Vector

We can also apply the R codes of the previous examples to an empty vector. Consider the following example vector:

```x_empty <- character() # Create empty character vector x_empty # character(0)```

As you can see, the vector is an empty character vector.

Now, we can add a new value “b” to this empty vector as follows:

```x_empty1 <- c(x_empty, "b") # Add value to empty vector x_empty1 # "b"```

## Video & Further Resources

Note that we used only character vectors in this R tutorial However, we could also apply these R codes to other data types such as numeric, factor, or more complex character strings.

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Summary: In this article, I explained how to combine values into a vector in R programming. Don’t hesitate to let me know in the comments section, if you have any further questions.

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