# Calculate Square in R (4 Examples)

This tutorial shows how to **raise the values of a data object to the power of two** in the R programming language.

Table of contents:

Let’s dive right in.

## Example 1: Compute Square of Single Value

This example illustrates how to calculate the square of a single data value in R.

x <- 5 # Create data object x # Print data object # 5 |

x <- 5 # Create data object x # Print data object # 5

As you can see based on the previous output of the RStudio console, we’ll use the value 5 for this example.

Now, we can calculate the square of this data object by using the ^ symbol:

x^2 # Calculate square of data object # 25 |

x^2 # Calculate square of data object # 25

The RStudio console shows the result: The square of 5 is equal to 25.

## Example 2: Compute Square of Vector Using ^

In this example, I’ll illustrate how to raise all elements of a vector to the power of two. First, we have to create a vector in R:

my_vec <- 1:5 # Create vector my_vec # Print vector # 1 2 3 4 5 |

my_vec <- 1:5 # Create vector my_vec # Print vector # 1 2 3 4 5

Now, we can simply apply the ^ symbol to this vector as we already did in Example 1:

my_vec^2 # Calculate square of vector # 1 4 9 16 25 |

my_vec^2 # Calculate square of vector # 1 4 9 16 25

The output is another vector containing the square of each element of our input vector.

## Example 3: Compute Square of Vector Using *

This example explains shows an alternative way for the computation of squares in R.

Instead of the ^ symbol, we can also multiply our data by itself by using the * symbol:

my_vec * my_vec # Multiply vector by itself # 1 4 9 16 25 |

my_vec * my_vec # Multiply vector by itself # 1 4 9 16 25

The output is exactly the same as in Example 2.

## Example 4: Compute Square of Data Frame

In this example, I’ll show how to take the square of all elements in a numeric data frame. Let’s create some example data:

my_data <- data.frame(x1 = 3:6, # Create data frame x2 = 5:2, x3 = 4) my_data # Print data frame # x1 x2 x3 # 1 3 5 4 # 2 4 4 4 # 3 5 3 4 # 4 6 2 4 |

my_data <- data.frame(x1 = 3:6, # Create data frame x2 = 5:2, x3 = 4) my_data # Print data frame # x1 x2 x3 # 1 3 5 4 # 2 4 4 4 # 3 5 3 4 # 4 6 2 4

Now, we can basically apply the same R code to our data frame as we already did in Examples 1 & 2 (i.e. ^2):

my_data^2 # Calculate square of data frame # x1 x2 x3 # 1 9 25 16 # 2 16 16 16 # 3 25 9 16 # 4 36 4 16 |

my_data^2 # Calculate square of data frame # x1 x2 x3 # 1 9 25 16 # 2 16 16 16 # 3 25 9 16 # 4 36 4 16

Looks good!

## Video, Further Resources & Summary

Do you need further info on the contents of this page? Then I can recommend to watch the following video of my YouTube channel. I’m explaining the R codes of this page in the video tutorial.

*The YouTube video will be added soon.*

Furthermore, you may read the related tutorials on my website:

Summary: This post illustrated how to **take the square of a data object** in the R programming language. In case you have further questions, let me know in the comments.

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